Pet Health & Nutrition

Evolution of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Canine & Feline Diets
Omega-3 Essentials
All Natural Vitamins A & D
Clinical References

Clinical References
1. Vaughn D, Reinhart G, Swaim S, et al. Evaluation of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios on leukotriene B synthesis in dog skin and neutrophils. Vet Dermatol 1994;5(4):163–173.

2. Dunbar BL, Bauer JE. Conversion of essential fatty acids by delta 6-desaturase in dog liver microsomes. J Nutr 2002;132:1701S–1703S.

3. Bauer JE. Fatty acid metabolism in domestic cats (Felis catus) and cheetahs (Acinoyx jubatas). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 1997;56:1013–1024.

4. Bauer JE. Responses of dogs to dietary omega-3 fatty acids. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 2007;11:1657–1661.

5. Brown SA, Brown CA, Crowell WA, et al. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in early renal insufficiency in dogs. J Lab Clin Med 2000;135:275–286.

6. Hansen RA, Harris ME, Pluhar GE, et al. Fish oil decreases matrix metallopoteinases in knee synovia of dogs with inflammatory joint disease. J Nutr Biochem 2008;19(2):101–108.


7. Freeman LM, Rush JE, Kehayias JJ. Nutritional alterations and the effects of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med 1998;12: 440–448.

8. Freeman LM, Rush JE, Markwell PJ. Effects of dietary modification in dogs with early chronic valvular disease. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:1116–1126.

9. Smith CE, Freeman LM, Rush, JE, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:256–273.

10. Heinemann KM, Waldron MK, Bigley KE. Long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are more efficient than alpha-linolenic acid in improving electroretinogram responses in puppies exposed during gestation, lactation, and weaning. J Nutr 2005;135:1960–1966.

11. Freemantle E, Vanda M, Tremblay-Mercier J, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids, energy substrates, and brain function during aging. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2006;75:213–220.

12. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Research Council
of the National Academies. The National Academies Press,
Washington, DC, 2006.